Authors’ guidelines

Cranium is a journal published by the Dutch Association for the Study of Pleistocene Mammals (WPZ). The magazine is published twice a year (around May/June and November/December) and aims to appeal and inform both the beginning and experienced (amateur) palaeontologists. The content varies from scientific research and background information, to new finds, museum and book reviews, and WPZ news items. An overview of past publications and the editorial board can be found on this website.
Membership with the WPZ or a Cranium subscription is available at € 30 per year.

Contributions or questions about Cranium can be sent to the editorial board at
Our deadlines are:
15 February – summer edition
15 August – winter edition

Below are the authors’ guidelines regarding the Procedure, Topics, Language & Usage, Style, Categories, Submission Requirements, and References.


  • Notify the editorial board when you intend to write an article for Cranium, so they can take it into account during planning
  • Send your manuscript to, according to the specifics below
  • You will receive a confirmation of receipt form the editors
  • The first reviewer/editor will keep the author(s) informed about the process, expected date of publication, and will discuss any editorial remarks before finalising the article
  • After reviewing and confirmation from the author(s), the final version will be forward to the layout, after which the author(s) will receive a proof (PDF) to confirm printing
  • After publication the (first) author is offered a category-specified number of copies, to share in the case of any co-authors. The maximum number of copies are as follows: Science articles 5 copies; Underground 3 copies; the remaining categories are distributed upon request and after consultation.


Cranium accepts manuscripts about Pleistocene mammals from all continents, and will make exceptions every now and then for related topics (such as Pleistocene birds and fishes, or Pliocene fossils from the Netherlands). Priority however, is given to papers written in Dutch, by our members. When in doubt about the relevance for publication in our magazine, please contact us at

Cranium accepts manuscripts with topics such as:

  • New research on Pleistocene mammals
  • Overviews of (research on) Pleistocene mammal species or groups
  • Sites with Pleistocene mammal material
  • Collections of Pleistocene mammal material
  • Pleistocene ecology
  • Museology
  • Preparation/Conservation
  • Taphonomy
  • Ichnology/Trace fossils
  • Relevant meetings, symposia and conferences
  • Relevant publications and exhibitions
  • WPZ activities and news

language & usage

The articles are primarily in Dutch with English abstracts and captions. Exceptions can be made for other languages, providing Dutch abstracts and captions. The editors can certainly help out with the Dutch translations. Non-Dutch manuscripts, mainly English, German or French, will in principle only be accepted from non-Dutch speaking authors. Again, exceptions can be made, depending on the case. The non-Dutch manuscripts are to be (co-)written, or checked, by a native speaker, before submission to Cranium.

  • Avoid the use of the personal (I) view, especially in scientific papers
  • The use of foot- and endnotes is prohibited
  • Latin names for species and genus are written in italics
  • Geological names are written with capitals in English
  • Titles of books, magazines, articles, exhibitions, etc. should be written in Sentence case and italics
  • We retain the orthography of Maasvlakte 2 (not MV2 or Tweede Maasvlakte) for this specific site
  • And the orthography of 14C (not C14) for this dating technique
  • Quotes are written in italics and “between quotation marks”


Papers can take the form of:

  • Descriptions
  • Independent (case)studies
  • Reports (such as survey and excavation reports)
  • Headline news
  • Symposia, workshops etc., and their proceedings
  • Short communications


Cranium uses several categories to distinguish the different types of articles:

  • Oud&Nieuws (Old&News): news items and short communications, mainly about or related to the association
  • Wetenschap (Science): results of new (scientific) research
  • Ondergrond (Underground): background information about geological periods, sites, research methods or Pleistocene ecology
  • Topvondst (Top find): description of a special fossil find or a remarkable story
  • Museum (Museum): review about a museum or relevant exhibition
  • Boeken (Books): overview and reviews about new and relevant publications
  • Collectie (Collection): visiting a remarkable collection of a WPZ-member
  • Interview (Interview): interview with an interesting WPZ-member
  • Reconstructie (Reconstruction): report of the reconstruction of an extinct animal or environment
  • Paleokunst (Paleoart): small exhibition of paleoart made by a member
  • Excursie (Excursion): report of a WPZ-organised field trip
  • Oproep (Call): call for attention on a specific site or (group of) fossil(s)

submission requirements

  • We prefer to receive your manuscript as plain text document (Word.doc(x)), preferably in Times New Roman, 12Pt, line distance 1, oriented to the left side
  • Every manuscript in every category has to carry the name of the author, but other than that the specifics slightly differ per category.
    Science: at least one (e-mail)address of one author, abstracts and captions in English and Dutch, and figures are numbered corresponding to the manuscript
    Underground / Top find / Collection / Reconstruction / Excursion / Call: English  and Dutch abstracts and captions, and a teaser (catchy, abstractive opener)
    Museum: details of the museum (name, opening hours, entrance fees, address and website), captions in English and Dutch
    Books: details of the publication (title, author(s)/editor(s), publisher, year of publication, hardcover or paperback, number of pages, ISBN
    Interview: name of interviewee in the title, teaser (catchy, abstractive opener)
    Paleoart: a short biography of the artist
  • There are no restrictions as regards length of the manuscript or number of figures and/or tables. However, we do ask our authors to contact the editorial board when a manuscript reaches more than 10 pages and/or contains more than 20 figures and/or tables
  • Figures and tables are to be submitted as separate files
  • Imagery needs a minimum resolution of 300 dpi, whereas drawings need a minimum of 600 dpi, and are preferably submitted as JPG or TIFF
  • The figures are provided with captions and sources (the author is responsible for  gaining permission of publication)
  • To submit large files, it is alright to use WeTransfer, Dropbox or Google Drive
  • Optional framed contexts in the manuscript have to be indicated with *kader aan*  at the beginning, and *kader uit* at the end of the context
  • All manuscripts will be reviewed by at least one of our editors


Citations in the text
  • 1 author: (Last name, year)
    Example: (Mol, 2010)
  • 2 authors: (Last name & Last name, year)
    Example: (Mol & Post, 2010)
  • 3 or more author: (Last name et al., year)
    Example: (Mol et al., 2010)
  • Websites: same as published articles
  • Quotes: (Last name, year, page number)
    Example: (Mol, 2010, p.23)
Below the text

Literature is without numbers, but by author in alphabetical order.
Titles of magazines have to be written in full, no abbreviations, and in Sentence case.

Last name, Initial(s), Initial(s) Last name, Initial(s) Last name (year) Title. Title magazine, number, pages.
Hooijer, D.A. (1950) Fossil evidence of Austromelanesian migrations in Malaya? Southwestern journal of anthropology 6, 416-422.
Rabeder, G., M. Hofreiter, M. Stiller (2011) Chronological and systematic position of cave bear fauna from Ajdovska jama near Krško (Slovenia). Mitteilungen der Kommission für Quartärforschung, Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 20, 79-86.

Last name, Initial(s), Initial(s), Last name (year) Title. Publisher, place.
Mol, D., J. de Vos, R. Bakker, B. van Geel, J.H. Glimmerveen, J. van der Plicht, K. Post (2008) Kleine encyclopedie van het leven in het Pleistoceen: mammoeten, neushoorns en andere dieren van de Noordzeebodem. Veen Magazines, Diemen.
Reumer J.W.F., J. de Vos (Eds.)(1999) Elephants have a snorkel! Papers in honour of Paul Y. Sondaar. Deinsea 7, Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam.

Last name, Initial(s), Initial(s), Last name (year) Title. In: Last name, Initial(s), Initial(s), Last name (Ed./Eds.) Title compilation, pages.
Mol, D., K. Post, J.W.F. Reumer, J. de Vos, C. Laban (2003) Het Gat: Preliminary note on a Bavelian fauna from the North Sea with possible two mammoth species. In: Reumer, J.W.F., J. de Vos, D. Mol (Eds.), Advances in Mammoth Research; Proceedings of the Second International Mammoth Conference, Rotterdam, 16-20 May 1999, DEINSEA 9, 253 – 266.

Avoid website references as much as possible.
Last name, Initial(s), Initial(s), Last name (year), Title article, website address (date of reference visit: dd-mm-yyyy).
Anoniem (2017), Van der Lijn onderscheiding 2017 voor Remie Bakker, (27-2-2017).

When in doubt, please contact the editorial board or add a note with the submission.